My favorite budget friendly page protectors have to be the C-Line Memory Book ones. You get quite a few for the price and they work pretty well. So far they've fit into all the 3 Ring binders I've used also. They are also pretty true to the 12x12 size.
As for albums, I'm not as sure what will work for that many pages. I do have and like a KMA version. I also have an American Crafts binder (although not the leather version) and have heard good things about the Making Memories ones. I don't know if they are budget friendly but they seem to be made well so you would only have to buy them once which is always good for a budget.
Hope I was of some help. Good luck finding what you need.